Magic: the Gathering
( Comprehensive rules )


Contents Glossary

7.  Additional Rules

702.  Keyword Abilities


702.1  Most abilities describe exactly what they do in the cards rules text. Some, though, are very common or would require too much space to define on the card. In these cases, the object lists only the name of the ability as a "keyword"; sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule.

702.1a  If an effect refers to a "[keyword ability] cost," it refers only to the variable costs for that keyword.

Example: Varolz, the Scar-Striped has the following ability: "Each creature card in your graveyard has scavenge. The scavenge cost is equal to its mana cost." A creature cards scavenge cost is an amount of mana equal to its mana cost, and the activation cost of the scavenge ability is that amount of mana plus "Exile this card from your graveyard."

702.1b  An effect that grants an object a keyword ability may define a variable in that ability based on characteristics of that object or other information about the game state. For these abilities, the value of that variable is constantly reevaluated.

Example: Volcano Hellion has the ability "Volcano Hellion has echo X, where X is your life total." If your life total is 10 when Volcano Hellions echo ability triggers but 5 when it resolves, the echo cost to pay is 5.

Example: Fire//Ice is a split card whose halves have the associated mana costs 1R and 1U. Past in Flames reads "Each instant and sorcery card in your graveyard gains flashback until end of turn. The flashback cost is equal to its mana cost." Fire//Ice has "Flashback 2UR" while it is in your graveyard, but if you choose to cast Fire, the resulting spell has "Flashback 1R."

702.2    Deathtouch

702.2a  Deathtouch is a static ability.

702.2b  A creature with toughness greater than 0 thats been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked is destroyed as a state-based action. See rule 704.

702.2c  Any nonzero amount of combat damage assigned to a creature by a source with deathtouch is considered to be lethal damage for the purposes of determining if a proposed combat damage assignment is valid, regardless of that creatures toughness. See rules 510.1cd.

702.2d  The deathtouch rules function no matter what zone an object with deathtouch deals damage from.

702.2e  If an object changes zones before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had deathtouch.

702.2f  Multiple instances of deathtouch on the same object are redundant.

702.3    Defender

702.3a  Defender is a static ability.

702.3b  A creature with defender cant attack.

702.3c  Multiple instances of defender on the same creature are redundant.

702.4    Double Strike

702.4a  Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. (See rule 510, "Combat Damage Step.")

702.4b  If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

702.4c  Removing double strike from a creature during the first combat damage step will stop it from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step.

702.4d  Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already dealt combat damage in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step.

702.4e  Multiple instances of double strike on the same creature are redundant.

702.5    Enchant

702.5a  Enchant is a static ability, written "Enchant [object or player]." The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant.

702.5b  For more information about Auras, see rule 303, "Enchantments."

702.5c  If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant, all of them apply. The Auras target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant. The Aura can enchant only objects or players that match all of its enchant abilities.

702.5d  Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Such Auras cant target permanents and cant be attached to permanents.

702.6    Equip

702.6a  Equip is an activated ability of Equipment cards. "Equip [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this permanent to target creature you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.6b  For more information about Equipment, see rule 301, "Artifacts."

702.6c  If a permanent has multiple instances of equip, any of its equip abilities may be activated.

702.7    First Strike

702.7a  First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. (See rule 510, "Combat Damage Step.")

702.7b  If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

702.7c  Giving first strike to a creature without it after combat damage has already been dealt in the first combat damage step wont prevent that creature from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step. Removing first strike from a creature after it has already dealt combat damage in the first combat damage step wont allow it to also assign combat damage in the second combat damage step (unless the creature has double strike).

702.7d  Multiple instances of first strike on the same creature are redundant.

702.8    Flash

702.8a  Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card its on. "Flash" means "You may play this card any time you could cast an instant."

702.8b  Multiple instances of flash on the same object are redundant.

702.9    Flying

702.9a  Flying is an evasion ability.

702.9b  A creature with flying cant be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 702.17, "Reach.")

702.9c  Multiple instances of flying on the same creature are redundant.

702.10    Haste

702.10a  Haste is a static ability.

702.10b  If a creature has haste, it can attack even if it hasnt been controlled by its controller continuously since his or her most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)

702.10c  If a creature has haste, its controller can activate its activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if that creature hasnt been controlled by that player continuously since his or her most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)

702.10d  Multiple instances of haste on the same creature are redundant.

702.11    Hexproof

702.11a  Hexproof is a static ability.

702.11b  "Hexproof" on a permanent means "This permanent cant be the target of spells or abilities your opponents control."

702.11c  "Hexproof" on a player means "You cant be the target of spells or abilities your opponents control."

702.11d  Multiple instances of hexproof on the same permanent or player are redundant.

702.12    Indestructible

702.12a  Indestructible is a static ability.

702.12b  A permanent with indestructible cant be destroyed. Such permanents arent destroyed by lethal damage, and they ignore the state-based action that checks for lethal damage (see rule 704.5g).

702.12c  Multiple instances of indestructible on the same permanent are redundant.

702.13    Intimidate

702.13a  Intimidate is an evasion ability.

702.13b  A creature with intimidate cant be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or creatures that share a color with it. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.13c  Multiple instances of intimidate on the same creature are redundant.

702.14    Landwalk

702.14a  Landwalk is a generic term that appears within an objects rules text as "[type]walk," where [type] is usually a subtype, but can be the card type land, any land type, any supertype, or any combination thereof.

702.14b  Landwalk is an evasion ability.

702.14c  A creature with landwalk cant be blocked as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in "islandwalk"), with the specified supertype (as in "legendary landwalk"), without the specified supertype (as in "nonbasic landwalk"), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in "snow swampwalk"). (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.14d  Landwalk abilities dont "cancel" one another.

Example: If a player controls a snow Forest, that player cant block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if he or she also controls a creature with snow forestwalk.

702.14e  Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk on the same creature are redundant.

702.15    Lifelink

702.15a  Lifelink is a static ability.

702.15b  Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that sources controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 119.3.

702.15c  If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.

702.15d  The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.

702.15e  If multiple sources with lifelink deal damage at the same time, they cause separate life gain events (see rule 118.9).

Example: A player controls Ajanis Pridemate, which reads "Whenever you gain life, you may put a +1/+1 counter on Ajanis Pridemate," and two creatures with lifelink. The creatures with lifelink deal combat damage simultaneously. Ajanis Pridemates ability triggers twice.

702.15f  Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

702.16    Protection

702.16a  Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality happens to be a card name, it is treated as such only if the protection ability specifies that the quality is a name. If the quality is a card type, subtype, or supertype, the ability applies to sources that are permanents with that card type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not on the battlefield that are of that card type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 109.2.

702.16b  A permanent or player with protection cant be targeted by spells with the stated quality and cant be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.

702.16c  A permanent or player with protection cant be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners graveyards as a state-based action. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

702.16d  A permanent with protection cant be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent as a state-based action, but remain on the battlefield. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

702.16e  Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player with protection is prevented.

702.16f  Attacking creatures with protection cant be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

702.16g  "Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]" and "protection from [quality B]"; it behaves as two separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B].

702.16h  "Protection from all [characteristic]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]," "protection from [quality B]," and so on for each possible quality the listed characteristic could have; it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B], [quality C], and so on.

702.16i  "Protection from everything" is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that objects characteristic values. Such a permanent cant be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.

702.16j  "Protection from [a player]" is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from a specific player has protection from each object the player controls and protection from each object the player owns not controlled by another player, regardless of that objects characteristic values. Such a permanent cant be targeted by spells or abilities the player controls, enchanted by Auras the player controls, equipped by Equipment the player controls, fortified by Fortifications the player controls, or blocked by creatures the player controls, and all damage that would be dealt to it by sources controlled by the player or owned by the player but not controlled by another player is prevented.

702.16k  Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.

702.16m  Some Auras both give the enchanted creature protection and say "this effect doesnt remove" either that specific Aura or all Auras. This means that the specified Auras can legally enchant that creature and arent put into their owners graveyards as a state-based action. If the creature has other instances of protection from the same quality, those instances affect Auras as normal.

702.17    Reach

702.17a  Reach is a static ability.

702.17b  A creature with flying cant be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 702.9, "Flying.")

702.17c  Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant.

702.18    Shroud

702.18a  Shroud is a static ability. "Shroud" means "This permanent or player cant be the target of spells or abilities."

702.18b  Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant.

702.19    Trample

702.19a  Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creatures combat damage. The ability has no effect when a creature with trample is blocking or is dealing noncombat damage. (See rule 510, "Combat Damage Step.")

702.19b  The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures thats being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage thats actually dealt. The attacking creatures controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case cant assign any damage to the player or planeswalker its attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities and a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creatures controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blockers protection ability. The attacking creatures controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

702.19c  If an attacking creature with trample is blocked, but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned, all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker its attacking.

702.19d  If a creature with trample is attacking a planeswalker, none of its combat damage can be assigned to the defending player, even if that planeswalker has been removed from combat or the damage the attacking creature could assign is greater than the planeswalkers loyalty.

702.19e  Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant.

702.20    Vigilance

702.20a  Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.

702.20b  Attacking doesnt cause creatures with vigilance to tap. (See rule 508, "Declare Attackers Step.")

702.20c  Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant.

702.21    Banding

702.21a  Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for combat.

702.21b  "Bands with other" is a special form of banding. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding, the permanent loses all "bands with other" abilities as well.

702.21c  As a player declares attackers, he or she may declare that one or more attacking creatures with banding and up to one attacking creature without banding (even if it has "bands with other") are all in a "band." He or she may also declare that one or more attacking [quality] creatures with "bands with other [quality]" and any number of other attacking [quality] creatures are all in a band. A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants, but each creature may be a member of only one of them. (Defending players cant declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 702.21j.)

702.21d  All creatures in an attacking band must attack the same player or planeswalker.

702.21e  Once an attacking band has been announced, it lasts for the rest of combat, even if something later removes banding or "bands with other" from one or more of the creatures in the band.

702.21f  An attacking creature thats removed from combat is also removed from the band it was in.

702.21g  Banding doesnt cause attacking creatures to share abilities, nor does it remove any abilities. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents.

702.21h  If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature, each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature.

Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk. The defending player, who controls a Swamp, can block the flying creature if able. If he or she does, then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s).

702.21i  If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect, the entire band becomes blocked.

702.21j  During the combat damage step, if an attacking creature is being blocked by a creature with banding, or by both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the defending player (rather than the active player) chooses how the attacking creatures damage is assigned. That player can divide that creatures combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures blocking it. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1c.

702.21k  During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creatures damage is assigned. That player can divide that creatures combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures its blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.

702.21m  Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant. Multiple instances of "bands with other" of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.

702.22    Rampage

702.22a  Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage N" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.22b  The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat wont change the bonus.

702.22c  If a creature has multiple instances of rampage, each triggers separately.

702.23    Cumulative Upkeep

702.23a  Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent is on the battlefield, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you dont, sacrifice it." If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments arent allowed.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep W or U" and two age counters on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, the creatures controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay WWW, WWU, WUU, or UUU to keep the creature on the battlefield.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeepSacrifice a creature" and one age counter on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, its controller cant choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. Either two different creatures must be sacrificed, or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed.

702.23b  If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeepPay 1 life." The creature has no age counters, and both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

702.24    Flanking

702.24a  Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.") "Flanking" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking, the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn."

702.24b  If a creature has multiple instances of flanking, each triggers separately.

702.25    Phasing

702.25a  Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. During each players untap step, before the active player untaps his or her permanents, all phased-in permanents with phasing that player controls "phase out." Simultaneously, all phased-out permanents that had phased out under that players control "phase in."

702.25b  If a permanent phases out, its status changes to "phased out." Except for rules and effects that specifically mention phased-out permanents, a phased-out permanent is treated as though it does not exist. It cant affect or be affected by anything else in the game. A permanent that phases out is removed from combat. (See rule 506.4.)

Example: You control three creatures, one of which is phased out. You cast a spell that says "Draw a card for each creature you control." You draw two cards.

Example: You control a phased-out creature. You cast a spell that says "Destroy all creatures." The phased-out creature is not destroyed.

702.25c  If a permanent phases in, its status changes to "phased in." The game once again treats it as though it exists.

702.25d  The phasing event doesnt actually cause a permanent to change zones or control, even though its treated as though its not on the battlefield and not under its controllers control while its phased out. Zone-change triggers dont trigger when a permanent phases in or out. Counters remain on a permanent while its phased out. Effects that check a phased-in permanents history wont treat the phasing event as having caused the permanent to leave or enter the battlefield or its controllers control.

702.25e  Continuous effects that affect a phased-out permanent may expire while that permanent is phased out. If so, they will no longer affect that permanent once its phased in. In particular, effects with "for as long as" durations that track that permanent (see rule 611.2b) end when that permanent phases out because they can no longer see it.

702.25f  When a permanent phases out, any Auras, Equipment, or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out "indirectly." An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out indirectly wont phase in by itself, but instead phases in along with the permanent its attached to.

702.25g  If an object would simultaneously phase out directly and indirectly, it just phases out indirectly.

702.25h  An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out directly will phase in attached to the object or player it was attached to when it phased out, if that object is still in the same zone or that player is still in the game. If not, that Aura, Equipment, or Fortification phases in unattached. State-based actions apply as appropriate. (See rules 704.5n and 704.5p.)

702.25i  Abilities that trigger when a permanent becomes attached or unattached from an object or player dont trigger when that permanent phases in or out.

702.25j  Phased-out permanents owned by a player who leaves the game also leave the game. This doesnt trigger zone-change triggers. See rule 800.4.

702.25k  Phased-out tokens cease to exist as a state-based action. See rule 704.5d.

702.25m  If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step, the phasing event simply doesnt occur that turn.

702.25n  Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant.

702.26    Buyback

702.26a  Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell" and "If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owners hand instead of into that players graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spells buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.27    Shadow

702.27a  Shadow is an evasion ability.

702.27b  A creature with shadow cant be blocked by creatures without shadow, and a creature without shadow cant be blocked by creatures with shadow. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.27c  Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant.

702.28    Cycling

702.28a  Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a players hand. "Cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Draw a card."

702.28b  Although the cycling ability can be activated only if the card is in a players hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

702.28c  Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when theyre cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay an activation cost of a cycling ability." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after its cycled.

702.28d  Some cards have abilities that trigger whenever a player "cycles or discards" a card. These abilities trigger only once when a card is cycled.

702.28e  Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." This type is usually a subtype (as in "mountaincycling") but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in "basic landcycling").

702.28f  Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay an activation cost of a typecycling ability. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost. Any effect that looks for a card with cycling will find a card with typecycling.

702.29    Echo

702.29a  Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay [cost]."

702.29b  Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. These cards have been given errata in the Oracle card reference; each one now has an echo cost equal to its mana cost.

702.30    Horsemanship

702.30a  Horsemanship is an evasion ability.

702.30b  A creature with horsemanship cant be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.30c  Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant.

702.31    Fading

702.31a  Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Fading N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you cant, sacrifice the permanent."

702.32    Kicker

702.32a  Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell with kicker is on the stack. "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell." Paying a spells kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.32b  The phrase "Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]" means the same thing as "Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2]."

702.32c  Multikicker is a variant of the kicker ability. "Multikicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] any number of times as you cast this spell." A multikicker cost is a kicker cost.

702.32d  If a spells controller declares the intention to pay any of that spells kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." If a spell has two kicker costs or has multikicker, it may be kicked multiple times. See rule 601.2b.

702.32e  Objects with kicker or multikicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if they are kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker or multikicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker or multikicker abilities. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

702.32f  Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.

702.32g  If part of a spells ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spells controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

702.33    Flashback

702.33a  Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one that functions while the card is in a players graveyard and another that functions while the card is on the stack. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "If the flashback cost was paid, exile this card instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Casting a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.34    Madness

702.34a  Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a players hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but exiles it instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesnt, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard."

702.34b  Casting a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.34c  After resolving a madness triggered ability, if the exiled card wasnt cast and was moved to a public zone, effects referencing the discarded card can find that card. See rule 400.7i.

702.35    Fear

702.35a  Fear is an evasion ability.

702.35b  A creature with fear cant be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.35c  Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant.

702.36    Morph

702.36a  Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card its on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may cast this card as a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost by paying 3 rather than paying its mana cost." (See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents.")

702.36b  Megamorph is a variant of the morph ability. "Megamorph [cost]" means "You may cast this card as a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost by paying 3 rather than paying its mana cost" and "As this permanent is turned face up, put a +1/+1 counter on it if its megamorph cost was paid to turn it face up." A megamorph cost is a morph cost.

702.36c  To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up cards characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that objects characteristics. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay 3 rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use a morph ability to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

702.36d  You cant normally cast a card face down. A morph ability allows you to do so.

702.36e  Any time you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control with a morph ability face up. This is a special action; it doesnt use the stack (see rule 115). To do this, show all players what the permanents morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldnt have a morph cost if it were face up, it cant be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield dont trigger when its turned face up and dont have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.

702.36f  See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," for more information about how to cast cards with a morph ability.

702.37    Amplify

702.37a  Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify N" means "As this object enters the battlefield, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You cant reveal this card or any other cards that are entering the battlefield at the same time as this card."

702.37b  If a creature has multiple instances of amplify, each one works separately.

702.38    Provoke

702.38a  Provoke is a triggered ability. "Provoke" means "Whenever this creature attacks, you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. If you do, untap that creature."

702.38b  If a creature has multiple instances of provoke, each triggers separately.

702.39    Storm

702.39a  Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Storm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

702.39b  If a spell has multiple instances of storm, each triggers separately.

702.40    Affinity

702.40a  Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell with affinity is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you 1 less to cast for each [text] you control."

702.40b  If a spell has multiple instances of affinity, each of them applies.

702.41    Entwine

702.41a  Entwine is a static ability of modal spells (see rule 700.2) that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Entwine [cost]" means "You may choose all modes of this spell instead of just one. If you do, you pay an additional [cost]." Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.41b  If the entwine cost was paid, follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves.

702.42    Modular

702.42a  Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

702.42b  If a creature has multiple instances of modular, each one works separately.

702.43    Sunburst

702.43a  Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is entering the battlefield from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it. If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack and isnt entering the battlefield as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it."

702.43b  Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.

702.43c  Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesnt matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.

Example: The ability "ModularSunburst" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

702.43d  If an object has multiple instances of sunburst, each one works separately.

702.44    Bushido

702.44a  Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.44b  If a creature has multiple instances of bushido, each triggers separately.

702.45    Soulshift

702.45a  Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift N" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand."

702.45b  If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift, each triggers separately.

702.46    Splice

702.46a  Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you cast a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this cards text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to cast that spell." Paying a cards splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

Example: Since the card with splice remains in the players hand, it can later be cast normally or spliced onto another spell. It can even be discarded to pay a "discard a card" cost of the spell its spliced onto.

702.46b  You cant choose to use a splice ability if you cant make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that cards instructions. You cant splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If youre splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first.

702.46c  The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesnt gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied.

Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads, "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists, a blue spell. The spell is still blue, and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.

702.46d  Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 601.2c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.

702.46e  The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when its countered, its exiled, or it resolves).

702.47    Offering

702.47a  Offering is a static ability that functions while the spell with offering is on the stack. "[Subtype] offering" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may sacrifice a [subtype] permanent. If you chose to pay the additional cost, this spells total cost is reduced by the sacrificed permanents mana cost, and you may cast this spell any time you could cast an instant."

702.47b  You choose which permanent to sacrifice as you make choices for the spell (see rule 601.2b), and you sacrifice that permanent as you pay the total cost (see rule 601.2h).

702.47c  Generic mana in the sacrificed permanents mana cost reduces generic mana in the spells total cost. Colored and colorless mana in the sacrificed permanents mana cost reduces mana of the same type in spells total cost, and any excess reduces that much generic mana in spells total cost.


702.48    Ninjutsu

702.48a  Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a players hand. "Ninjutsu [cost]" means "[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand, Return an unblocked attacking creature you control to its owners hand: Put this card onto the battlefield from your hand tapped and attacking."

702.48b  The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack.

702.48c  A ninjutsu ability may be activated only while a creature on the battlefield is unblocked (see rule 509.1h). The creature with ninjutsu is put onto the battlefield unblocked. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owners hand.

702.49    Epic

702.49a  Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you cant cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.10.

702.49b  A player cant cast spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves, but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.

702.50    Convoke

702.50a  Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell with convoke is on the stack. "Convoke" means "For each colored mana in this spells total cost, you may tap an untapped creature of that color you control rather than pay that mana. For each generic mana in this spells total cost, you may tap an untapped creature you control rather than pay that mana."

702.50b  The convoke ability isnt an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with convoke is determined.

Example: Heartless Summoning says, in part, "Creature spells you cast cost 2 less to cast." You control Heartless Summoning and cast Siege Wurm, a spell with convoke that costs 5GG. The total cost to cast Siege Wurm is 3GG. After activating mana abilities, you pay that total cost. You may tap up to two green creatures and up to three creatures of any color to pay that cost, and the remainder is paid with mana.

702.50c  Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

702.51    Dredge

702.51a  Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a players graveyard. "Dredge N" means "As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand."

702.51b  A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability cant put any of them into his or her graveyard this way.

702.52    Transmute

702.52a  Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a players hand. "Transmute [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal that card, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.52b  Although the transmute ability can be activated only if the card is in a players hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

702.53    Bloodthirst

702.53a  Bloodthirst is a static ability. "Bloodthirst N" means "If an opponent was dealt damage this turn, this permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it."

702.53b  "Bloodthirst X" is a special form of bloodthirst. "Bloodthirst X" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with X +1/+1 counters on it, where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn."

702.53c  If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst, each applies separately.

702.54    Haunt

702.54a  Haunt is a triggered ability. "Haunt" on a permanent means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, exile it haunting target creature." "Haunt" on an instant or sorcery spell means "When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution, exile it haunting target creature."

702.54b  Cards that are in the exile zone as the result of a haunt ability "haunt" the creature targeted by that ability. The phrase "creature it haunts" refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability, regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature.

702.54c  Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the exile zone.

702.55    Replicate

702.55a  Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. "Replicate [cost]" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may pay [cost] any number of times" and "When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." Paying a spells replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.55b  If a spell has multiple instances of replicate, each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it, not any other instance of replicate.

702.56    Forecast

702.56a  A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be activated only from a players hand. Its written "Forecast [Activated ability]."

702.56b  A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the cards owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the players hand or until a step or phase that isnt an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.

702.57    Graft

702.57a  Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature enters the battlefield, if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature."

702.57b  If a permanent has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

702.58    Recover

702.58a  Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a players graveyard. "Recover [cost]" means "When a creature is put into your graveyard from the battlefield, you may pay [cost]. If you do, return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Otherwise, exile this card."

702.59    Ripple

702.59a  Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. "Ripple N" means "When you cast this spell, you may reveal the top N cards of your library, or, if there are fewer than N cards in your library, you may reveal all the cards in your library. If you reveal cards from your library this way, you may cast any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs, then put all revealed cards not cast this way on the bottom of your library in any order."

702.59b  If a spell has multiple instances of ripple, each triggers separately.

702.60    Split Second

702.60a  Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. "Split second" means "As long as this spell is on the stack, players cant cast other spells or activate abilities that arent mana abilities."

702.60b  Players may activate mana abilities and take special actions while a spell with split second is on the stack. Triggered abilities trigger and are put on the stack as normal while a spell with split second is on the stack.

702.60c  Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant.

702.61    Suspend

702.61a  Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a players hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the exile zone. "Suspend N[cost]" means "If you could begin to cast this card by putting it onto the stack from your hand, you may pay [cost] and exile it with N time counters on it. This action doesnt use the stack," and "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this card, if its exiled, play it without paying its mana cost if able. If you cant, it remains exiled. If you cast a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes."

702.61b  A card is "suspended" if its in the exile zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

702.61c  While determining if you could begin to cast a card with suspend, take into consideration any effects that would prohibit that card from being cast.

702.61d  Casting a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.62    Vanishing

702.62a  Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. "Vanishing N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N time counters on it," "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

702.62b  Vanishing without a number means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it" and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

702.62c  If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing, each works separately.

702.63    Absorb

702.63a  Absorb is a static ability. "Absorb N" means "If a source would deal damage to this creature, prevent N of that damage."

702.63b  Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. It will apply separately to damage from other sources, or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time.

702.63c  If an object has multiple instances of absorb, each applies separately.

702.64    Aura Swap

702.64a  Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. "Aura swap [cost]" means "[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand."

702.64b  If either half of the exchange cant be completed, the ability has no effect.

Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura. The only Aura card in your hand cant enchant the permanent thats enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. The ability has no effect.

Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you dont own. The ability has no effect.

702.65    Delve

702.65a  Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell with delve is on the stack. "Delve" means "For each generic mana in this spells total cost, you may exile a card from your graveyard rather than pay that mana."

702.65b  The delve ability isnt an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with delve is determined.

702.65c  Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant.

702.66    Fortify

702.66a  Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. "Fortify [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.66b  For more information about Fortifications, see rule 301, "Artifacts."

702.66c  If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify, any of its fortify abilities may be used.

702.67    Frenzy

702.67a  Frenzy is a triggered ability. "Frenzy N" means "Whenever this creature attacks and isnt blocked, it gets +N/+0 until end of turn."

702.67b  If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy, each triggers separately.

702.68    Gravestorm

702.68a  Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Gravestorm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from the battlefield this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

702.68b  If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm, each triggers separately.

702.69    Poisonous

702.69a  Poisonous is a triggered ability. "Poisonous N" means "Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player gets N poison counters." (For information about poison counters, see rule 104.3d.)

702.69b  If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous, each triggers separately.

702.70    Transfigure

702.70a  Transfigure is an activated ability. "Transfigure [cost]" means "[Cost], Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it onto the battlefield. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.71    Champion

702.71a  Champion represents two triggered abilities. "Champion an [object]" means "When this permanent enters the battlefield, sacrifice it unless you exile another [object] you control" and "When this permanent leaves the battlefield, return the exiled card to the battlefield under its owners control."

702.71b  The two abilities represented by champion are linked. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

702.71c  A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability.

702.72    Changeling

702.72a  Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 604.3.

702.73    Evoke

702.73a  Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card with evoke can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a cards evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.74    Hideaway

702.74a  Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent enters the battlefield tapped" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, look at the top four cards of your library. Exile one of them face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. The exiled card gains Any player who has controlled the permanent that exiled this card may look at this card in the exile zone."

702.75    Prowl

702.75a  Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. "Prowl [cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spells mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that, at the time it dealt that damage, was under your control and had any of this spells creature types." Paying a spells prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.76    Reinforce

702.76a  Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a players hand. "Reinforce N[cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature."

702.76b  Although the reinforce ability can be activated only if the card is in a players hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

702.77    Conspire

702.77a  Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. "Conspire" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it" and "When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." Paying a spells conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.77b  If a spell has multiple instances of conspire, each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment, not any other instance of conspire.

702.78    Persist

702.78a  Persist is a triggered ability. "Persist" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no -1/-1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owners control with a -1/-1 counter on it."

702.79    Wither

702.79a  Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isnt marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that sources controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature. See rule 119.3.

702.79b  If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had wither.

702.79c  The wither rules function no matter what zone an object with wither deals damage from.

702.79d  Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.

702.80    Retrace

702.80a  Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card with retrace is in a players graveyard. "Retrace" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to cast it." Casting a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.81    Devour

702.81a  Devour is a static ability. "Devour N" means "As this object enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice any number of creatures. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way."

702.81b  Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. "It devoured" means "sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it entered the battlefield."

702.82    Exalted

702.82a  Exalted is a triggered ability. "Exalted" means "Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn."

702.82b  A creature "attacks alone" if its the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 506.5.

702.83    Unearth

702.83a  Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card with unearth is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.84    Cascade

702.84a  Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. "Cascade" means "When you cast this spell, exile cards from the top of your library until you exile a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spells converted mana cost. You may cast that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards exiled this way that werent cast on the bottom of your library in a random order."

702.84b  If a spell has multiple instances of cascade, each triggers separately.

702.85    Annihilator

702.85a  Annihilator is a triggered ability. "Annihilator N" means "Whenever this creature attacks, defending player sacrifices N permanents."

702.85b  If a creature has multiple instances of annihilator, each triggers separately.

702.86    Level Up

702.86a  Level up is an activated ability. "Level up [cost]" means "[Cost]: Put a level counter on this permanent. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.86b  Each card printed with a level up ability is known as a leveler card. It has a nonstandard layout and includes two level symbols that are themselves keyword abilities. See rule 710, "Leveler Cards."

702.87    Rebound

702.87a  Rebound appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack and may create a delayed triggered ability. "Rebound" means "If this spell was cast from your hand, instead of putting it into your graveyard as it resolves, exile it and, at the beginning of your next upkeep, you may cast this card from exile without paying its mana cost."

702.87b  Casting a card without paying its mana cost as the result of a rebound ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.87c  Multiple instances of rebound on the same spell are redundant.

702.88    Totem Armor

702.88a  Totem armor is a static ability that appears on some Auras. "Totem armor" means "If enchanted permanent would be destroyed, instead remove all damage marked on it and destroy this Aura."

702.89    Infect

702.89a  Infect is a static ability.

702.89b  Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesnt cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes that sources controller to give the player that many poison counters. See rule 119.3.

702.89c  Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isnt marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that sources controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature. See rule 119.3.

702.89d  If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had infect.

702.89e  The infect rules function no matter what zone an object with infect deals damage from.

702.89f  Multiple instances of infect on the same object are redundant.

702.90    Battle Cry

702.90a  Battle cry is a triggered ability. "Battle cry" means "Whenever this creature attacks, each other attacking creature gets +1/+0 until end of turn."

702.90b  If a creature has multiple instances of battle cry, each triggers separately.

702.91    Living Weapon

702.91a  Living weapon is a triggered ability. "Living weapon" means "When this Equipment enters the battlefield, create a 0/0 black Germ creature token, then attach this Equipment to it."

702.92    Undying

702.92a  Undying is a triggered ability. "Undying" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no +1/+1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owners control with a +1/+1 counter on it."

702.93    Miracle

702.93a  Miracle is a static ability linked to a triggered ability (see rule 603.11). "Miracle [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you draw it if its the first card youve drawn this turn. When you reveal this card this way, you may cast it by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost."

702.93b  If a player chooses to reveal a card using its miracle ability, he or she plays with that card revealed until that card leaves his or her hand, that ability resolves, or that ability otherwise leaves the stack.

702.94    Soulbond

702.94a  Soulbond is a keyword that represents two triggered abilities. "Soulbond" means "When this creature enters the battlefield, if you control both this creature and another creature and both are unpaired, you may pair this creature with another unpaired creature you control for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control" and "Whenever another creature enters the battlefield under your control, if you control both that creature and this one and both are unpaired, you may pair that creature with this creature for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control."

702.94b  A creature becomes "paired" with another as the result of a soulbond ability. Abilities may refer to a paired creature, the creature another creature is paired with, or whether a creature is paired. An "unpaired" creature is one that is not paired.

702.94c  When the soulbond ability resolves, if either object that would be paired is no longer a creature, no longer on the battlefield, or no longer under the control of the player who controls the soulbond ability, neither object becomes paired.

702.94d  A creature can be paired with only one other creature.

702.94e  A paired creature becomes unpaired if any of the following occur: another player gains control of it or the creature its paired with; it or the creature its paired with stops being a creature; or it or the creature its paired with leaves the battlefield.

702.95    Overload

702.95a  Overload is a keyword that represents two static abilities that function while the spell with overload is on the stack. Overload [cost] means "You may choose to pay [cost] rather than pay this spells mana cost" and "If you chose to pay this spells overload cost, change its text by replacing all instances of the word target with the word each." Using the overload ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.95b  If a player chooses to pay the overload cost of a spell, that spell wont require any targets. It may affect objects that couldnt be chosen as legal targets if the spell were cast without its overload cost being paid.

702.95c  Overloads second ability creates a text-changing effect. See rule 612, "Text-Changing Effects."

702.96    Scavenge

702.96a  Scavenge is an activated ability that functions only while the card with scavenge is in a graveyard. "Scavenge [cost]" means "[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Put a number of +1/+1 counters equal to the power of the card you exiled on target creature. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.97    Unleash

702.97a  Unleash is a keyword that represents two static abilities. "Unleash" means "You may have this permanent enter the battlefield with an additional +1/+1 counter on it" and "This permanent cant block as long as it has a +1/+1 counter on it."

702.98    Cipher

702.98a  Cipher appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities. The first is a spell ability that functions while the spell with cipher is on the stack. The second is a static ability that functions while the card with cipher is in the exile zone. "Cipher" means "If this spell is represented by a card, you may exile this card encoded on a creature you control" and "For as long as this card is encoded on that creature, that creature has Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, you may copy the encoded card and you may cast the copy without paying its mana cost."

702.98b  The term "encoded" describes the relationship between the card with cipher while in the exile zone and the creature chosen when the spell represented by that card resolves.

702.98c  The card with cipher remains encoded on the chosen creature as long as the card with cipher remains exiled and the creature remains on the battlefield. The card remains encoded on that object even if it changes controller or stops being a creature, as long as it remains on the battlefield.

702.99    Evolve

702.99a  Evolve is a triggered ability. "Evolve" means "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield under your control, if that creatures power is greater than this creatures power and/or that creatures toughness is greater than this creatures toughness, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature."

702.99b  A creature "evolves" when one or more +1/+1 counters are put on it as a result of its evolve ability resolving.

702.99c  A creature cant have a greater power or toughness than a noncreature permanent.

702.99d  If a creature has multiple instances of evolve, each triggers separately.

702.100    Extort

702.100a  Extort is a triggered ability. "Extort" means "Whenever you cast a spell, you may pay WB. If you do, each opponent loses 1 life and you gain life equal to the total life lost this way."

702.100b  If a permanent has multiple instances of extort, each triggers separately.

702.101    Fuse

702.101a  Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards") that applies while the card with fuse is in a players hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card rather than choose one half. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.

702.101b  A fused split spell has the combined characteristics of its two halves. (See rule 708.4.)

702.101c  The total cost of a fused split spell includes the mana cost of each half.

702.101d  As a fused split spell resolves, the controller of the spell follows the instructions of the left half and then follows the instructions of the right half.

702.102    Bestow

702.102a  Bestow represents two static abilities, one that functions while the card with bestow is on the stack and another that functions both while its on the stack and while its on the battlefield. "Bestow [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost." and "If you chose to pay this spells bestow cost, it becomes an Aura enchantment and gains enchant creature. These effects last until one of two things happens: this spell has an illegal target as it resolves or the permanent this spell becomes, becomes unattached." Paying a cards bestow cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.102b  If a spells controller chooses to pay its bestow cost, that player chooses a legal target for that Aura spell as defined by its enchant creature ability and rule 601.2c. See also rule 303.4.

702.102c  The check for whether a spell can legally be cast happens after its controller has chosen whether to pay its bestow cost; see rule 601.2e.

Example: Aether Storm is an enchantment with the ability "Creature spells cant be cast." This effect doesnt stop a creature card with bestow from being cast for its bestow cost because the spell is an Aura enchantment spell, not an enchantment creature spell, when the game checks whether the spell is illegal.

702.102d  As an Aura spell with bestow begins resolving, if its target is illegal, the effect making it an Aura spell ends. It continues resolving as a creature spell and will be put onto the battlefield under the control of the spells controller. This is an exception to rule 608.3a.

702.102e  If an Aura with bestow is attached to an illegal object or player, it becomes unattached. This is an exception to rule 704.5n.

702.103    Tribute

702.103a  Tribute is a static ability that functions as the creature with tribute is entering the battlefield. "Tribute N" means "As this creature enters the battlefield, choose an opponent. That player may put an additional N +1/+1 counters on it as it enters the battlefield."

702.103b  Objects with tribute have triggered abilities that check "if tribute wasnt paid." This condition is true if the opponent chosen as a result of the tribute ability didnt have the creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters as specified by the creatures tribute ability.

702.104    Dethrone

702.104a  Dethrone is a triggered ability. "Dethrone" means "Whenever this creature attacks the player with the most life or tied for most life, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature."

702.104b  If a creature has multiple instances of dethrone, each triggers separately.

702.105    Hidden Agenda

702.105a  Hidden agenda is a static ability that functions as a conspiracy card with hidden agenda is put into the command zone. "Hidden agenda" means "As you put this conspiracy card into the command zone, turn it face down and secretly choose a card name."

702.105b  To secretly choose a card name, note that name on a piece of paper kept with the face-down conspiracy card.

702.105c  Any time you have priority, you may turn a face-down conspiracy card you control in the command zone face up. This is a special action. Doing so will reveal the chosen name. See rule 115.2h.

702.105d  Hidden agenda and another ability of the object with hidden agenda that refers to "the chosen name" are linked. The second ability refers only to the card name chosen as a result of that objects hidden agenda ability. See rule 607.2d.

702.105e  If a player leaves the game, all face-down conspiracy cards controlled by that player must be revealed to all players. At the end of each game, all face-down conspiracy cards must be revealed to all players.

702.105f  Double agenda is a variant of the hidden agenda ability. As you put a conspiracy card with double agenda into the command zone, you secretly name two different cards rather than one. You dont reveal that more than one name was secretly chosen until you reveal the chosen names.

702.106    Outlast

702.106a  Outlast is an activated ability. "Outlast [cost]" means "[Cost], Tap: Put a +1/+1 counter on this creature. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.107    Prowess

702.107a  Prowess is a triggered ability. "Prowess" means "Whenever you cast a noncreature spell, this creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn."

702.107b  If a creature has multiple instances of prowess, each triggers separately.

702.108    Dash

702.108a  Dash represents three abilities: two static abilities that function while the card with dash is on the stack, one of which may create a delayed triggered ability, and a static ability that functions while the object with dash is on the battlefield. "Dash [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost," "If this spells dash cost was paid, return the permanent this spell becomes to its owners hand at the beginning of the next end step," and "As long as this permanents dash cost was paid, it has haste." Paying a cards dash cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.109    Exploit

702.109a  Exploit is a triggered ability. "Exploit" means "When this creature enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice a creature."

702.109b  A creature with exploit "exploits a creature" when the controller of the exploit ability sacrifices a creature as that ability resolves.

702.110    Menace

702.110a  Menace is an evasion ability.

702.110b  A creature with menace cant be blocked except by two or more creatures. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.110c  Multiple instances of menace on the same creature are redundant.

702.111    Renown

702.111a  Renown is a triggered ability. "Renown N" means "When this creature deals combat damage to a player, if it isnt renowned, put N +1/+1 counters on it and it becomes renowned."

702.111b  Renowned is a designation that has no rules meaning other than to act as a marker that the renown ability and other spells and abilities can identify. Only permanents can be or become renowned. Once a permanent becomes renowned, it stays renowned until it leaves the battlefield. Renowned is neither an ability nor part of the permanents copiable values.

702.111c  If a creature has multiple instances of renown, each triggers separately. The first such ability to resolve will cause the creature to become renowned, and subsequent abilities will have no effect. (See rule 603.4)

702.112    Awaken

702.112a  Awaken appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities: a static ability that functions while the spell with awaken is on the stack and a spell ability. "Awaken N[cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spells mana cost as you cast this spell" and "If this spells awaken cost was paid, put N +1/+1 counters on target land you control. That land becomes a 0/0 Elemental creature with haste. Its still a land." Paying a spells awaken cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.112b  The controller of a spell with awaken chooses the target of the awaken spell ability only if that player chose to pay the spells awaken cost. Otherwise the spell is cast as if it didnt have that target.

702.113    Devoid

702.113a  Devoid is a characteristic-defining ability. "Devoid" means "This object is colorless." This ability functions everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 604.3.

702.114    Ingest

702.114a  Ingest is a triggered ability. "Ingest" means "Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player exiles the top card of his or her library."

702.114b  If a creature has multiple instances of ingest, each triggers separately.

702.115    Myriad

702.115a  Myriad is a triggered ability that may also create a delayed triggered ability. "Myriad" means "Whenever this creature attacks, for each opponent other than defending player, you may create a token thats a copy of this creature thats tapped and attacking that player or a planeswalker he or she controls. If one or more tokens are created this way, exile the tokens at end of combat."

702.115b  If a creature has multiple instances of myriad, each triggers separately.

702.116    Surge

702.116a  Surge is a static ability that functions while the spell with surge is on the stack. "Surge [cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spells mana cost as you cast this spell if you or one of your teammates has cast another spell this turn." Paying a spells surge cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.117    Skulk

702.117a  Skulk is an evasion ability.

702.117b  A creature with skulk cant be blocked by creatures with greater power. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.117c  Multiple instances of skulk on the same creature are redundant.

702.118    Emerge

702.118a  Emerge represents two static abilities that function while the spell with emerge is on the stack. "Emerge [cost]" means "You may cast this spell by paying [cost] and sacrificing a creature rather than paying its mana cost" and "If you chose to pay this spells emerge cost, its total cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to the sacrificed creatures converted mana cost." Paying a cards emerge cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2fh.

702.118b  You choose which creature to sacrifice as you choose to pay a spells emerge cost (see rule 601.2b), and you sacrifice that creature as you pay the total cost (see rule 601.2h).

702.119    Escalate

702.119a  Escalate is a static ability of modal spells (see rule 700.2) that functions while the spell with escalate is on the stack. "Escalate [cost]" means "For each mode you choose beyond the first as you cast this spell, you pay an additional [cost]." Paying a spells escalate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2fh.

702.120    Melee

702.120a  Melee is a triggered ability. "Melee" means "Whenever this creature attacks, it gets +1/+1 until end of turn for each opponent you attacked with a creature this combat."

702.120b  If a creature has multiple instances of melee, each triggers separately.

702.121    Crew

702.121a  Crew is an activated ability of Vehicle cards. "Crew N" means "Tap any number of untapped creatures you control with total power N or greater: This permanent becomes an artifact creature until end of turn."

702.121b  A creature "crews a Vehicle" when its tapped to pay the cost to activate a Vehicles crew ability.

702.121c  If an effect states that a creature "cant crew Vehicles," that creature cant be tapped to pay the crew cost of a Vehicle.

702.122    Fabricate

702.122a  Fabricate is a triggered ability. "Fabricate N" means "When this permanent enters the battlefield, you may put N +1/+1 counters on it. If you dont, create N 1/1 colorless Servo artifact creature tokens."

702.122b  If a permanent has multiple instances of fabricate, each triggers separately.

702.123    Partner

702.123a  Partner is an ability that modifies the rules for deck construction in the Commander variant (see rule 903), and it functions before the game begins. Rather than a single legendary creature card, you may designate two legendary creature cards as your commander if each has partner.

702.123b  Your deck must contain exactly 100 cards, including its two commanders. Both commanders begin the game in the command zone.

702.123c  A rule or effect that refers to your commanders color identity refers to the combined color identities of your two commanders. See rule 903.4.

702.123d  Except for determining the color identity of your commander, the two commanders function independently. When casting a commander with partner, ignore how many times your other commander has been cast. When determining whether a player has been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same commander, consider damage from each of your two commanders separately. See rule 903.11a.

702.123e  If an effect refers to your commander while you have two commanders, it refers to either one. If an effect causes you to perform an action on your commander and it could affect both, you choose which it refers to at the time the effect is applied.

702.124    Undaunted

702.124a  Undaunted is a static ability that functions while the spell with undaunted is on the stack. Undaunted means "This spell costs 1 less to cast for each opponent you have."

702.124b  Players who have left the game are not counted when determining how many opponents you have.

702.124c  If a spell has multiple instances of undaunted, each of them applies.

702.125    Improvise

702.125a  Improvise is a static ability that functions while the spell with improvise is on the stack. "Improvise" means "For each generic mana in this spells total cost, you may tap an untapped artifact you control rather than pay that mana."

702.125b  The improvise ability isnt an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with improvise is determined.

702.125c  Multiple instances of improvise on the same spell are redundant.

702.126    Aftermath

702.126a  Aftermath is an ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards"). It represents three static abilities. "Aftermath" means "You may cast this half of this split card from your graveyard," "This half of this split card cant be cast from any zone other than a graveyard," and "If this spell was cast from a graveyard, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack."

702.127    Embalm

702.127a  Embalm is an activated ability that functions while the card with embalm is in a graveyard. "Embalm [cost]" means "[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Create a token thats a copy of this card, except its white, it has no mana cost, and its a Zombie in addition to its other types. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.127b  A token is "embalmed" if its created by a resolving embalm ability.



       7.  Additional Rules
<<  701. Keyword Actions
7.  Additional Rules       
703. Turn-Based Actions  >>
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _